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Biology

http://www.whitworth.edu/biology

The mission of the Whitworth Biology Department is to educate biologists to be knowledgeable about the organization and function of biological systems, proficient in the practice of science, and conversant in the ethical and social implications of advances in the field. We seek to instill in students an understanding that organisms exist in dynamic interaction with an environmental context. We believe that the ideas of biology interface significantly with other intellectual perspectives and that the study of biology provides an appropriate philosophical foundation for an informed, comprehensive worldview.

Biology

The learning outcomes of this major prepare students in the following areas:

Content

Graduates should have a broad base of factual information and principles in biology, including basic knowledge of all major organismic groups, biochemistry and metabolism, and the structural and functional components at all levels of biological organization. In addition, they should have reasonable depth in one sub-discipline of biology.

Synthesis: Graduates should be able to integrate and synthesize material from different sub-disciplines of biology. This goes beyond simply having knowledge of different areas, and should integrate sub-disciplines of biology, relating biological processes at various levels of organization.

Communication

Biology graduates should be able to communicate with professional and lay audiences about biology. This skill includes the ability to communicate coherently in both oral and written forms, in plain language, about biological matters, and the ability to use discipline-specific formats as appropriate for professional audiences.

Critical Thinking

Graduates should be able to interpret biological research reports and journal articles and to analyze data. They should have the ability to design a useful, workable experiment to address a particular biological question and be able to use problem-solving skills to modify a planned experimental approach.

Technical Proficiencies

Graduates should demonstrate basic laboratory “bench” skills common to the discipline (e.g., using a microscope, performing dilutions, operating a spectrophotometer); be familiar with field techniques such as sampling, habitat analysis, and collecting and preserving samples; follow and use experimental protocols, including recording and maintaining accurate data records; and understand the factors involved in maintaining and handling organisms – plants, animals and microbes – for study.

Research

The ability to conduct a research experiment incorporates many of the goals the faculty would like students to achieve – knowledge of content, synthesis, technical proficiencies and communication skills.

Requirements for a Biology Major, B.A. (45)

BI 140General Biology I: Genes, Cells and Evolution4
BI 141General Biology II: Organismal Biology4
Take four credits of the following:4
Plant Taxonomy *
Microbial Physiology *
Comparative Vertebrate Anatomy *
Note: BI-296 courses will apply toward this requirement. (May be repeated for credit) See advisor for details.
One of the following:3
Introductory Biochemistry
Biochemistry I
Approved upper-division biology electives **20
(For teacher certification, 4-12 endorsement, BI 333, 363 and 345 must be included.)
CH 161General Chemistry I3
CH 161LGeneral Chemistry I Lab1
CH 181General Chemistry II3
CH 271Organic Chemistry I3

(No more than four credits of internships, independent study or cooperative studies, no more than two credits of teaching assistantships, no more than four credits of BI 400 – Biological Research, and no more than 6 total credits for any combination of the above will apply to the degree program.)

*

 If used to meet this requirement, cannot be used to meet the upper division elective requirements

**

One writing-intensive biology course is required.

For teacher certification (4-12 endorsement), the following additional courses are also required:

MA 256Elementary Probability and Statistics3
EDU 455Science in Secondary School2

All endorsements subject to change; see School of Education for updated requirements.

 

Requirements for a Biology Major, B.S. (58)

BI 140General Biology I: Genes, Cells and Evolution4
BI 141General Biology II: Organismal Biology4
Take four credits of the following:4
Plant Taxonomy *
Microbial Physiology *
Comparative Vertebrate Anatomy *
Note: BI-296 courses will apply toward this requirement. (May be repeated for credit) See advisor for details.
BI 345Ecology4
BI 363Genetics4
One of the following:4
Animal Physiology
Plant Physiology
Microbial Physiology
One of the following:3
Molecular Biology
Advanced Cell Biology
One of the following:3
Introductory Biochemistry
Biochemistry I
Approved upper-division biology electives **8
(For teacher certification, 4-12 endorsement, BI 333, 363 and 345 must be included.)
CH 161General Chemistry I3
CH 161LGeneral Chemistry I Lab1
CH 181General Chemistry II3
CH 181LGeneral Chemistry II Lab1
CH 271Organic Chemistry I3
CH 271LOrganic Chemistry I Lab1
PS 151General Physics I ***3
PS 151LGeneral Physics I Lab1
PS 153General Physics II ***3
PS 153LGeneral Physics II Lab1

(No more than four credits of internships, independent study or cooperative studies, no more than two credits of teaching assistantships, no more than four credits of BI 400 – Biological Research, and no more than 6 total credits for any combination of the above will apply to the degree program.)

*

If used to meet this requirement, cannot be used to meet the physiology or upper division elective requirements

**

One writing-intensive biology course required.

***

PS 151 has a prerequisite of MA 171 (Calculus I) and PS 153 has a prerequisite of MA 172 (Calculus II). 

For teacher certification (4-12 endorsement) the following courses are also required:

EDU 455Science in Secondary School2

All endorsements subject to change; see School of Education for updated requirements.

Requirements for a Biology Minor (20)

All endorsements subject to change; see School Education for updated requirements.
BI 140General Biology I: Genes, Cells and Evolution4
BI 141General Biology II: Organismal Biology4
Take four credits of the following:4
Plant Taxonomy *
Microbial Physiology *
Comparative Vertebrate Anatomy *
Note: BI-296 courses will apply toward this requirement. (May be repeated for credit) See advisor for details.
Approved upper-division biology electives8

For Washington state endorsement in biology, BI 333, BI 363 and BI 345 must be included and the following additional courses are required:

*

 If used to meet this requirement, cannot be used to meet upper division elective requirement.

MA 256Elementary Probability and Statistics3
EDU 455Science in Secondary School2


The Environmental Studies minor integrates natural science, social science and humanities to attain a balanced education that encourages careful stewardship of the earth.

Requirements for an Environmental Studies Minor (21-23)

BI 120Intro to Environmental Science3
PO/EC 250Environment and Society3
Natural Sciences, choose one of the following:3-4
Introductory Biology
Plants in Culture
Marine Biology
Plant Taxonomy
Landscape Ecology
Animal Behavior
Plant Physiology
Field Marine Ecology
Ecology
Mycology
Environmental Microbiology
Green Chemistry
Chemistry and Health
Chemistry in Modern Living
Understanding Earth
Environmental Geology
Physics in Current Events
Note: BI-296 courses will apply toward this requirement. See advisor for details.
Social Sciences, choose one of the following:3-4
Globalization, Ecology, Gender in Central America
Globalization in Southeast Asia
International Political Economy
Population, Environment and Society
Humanities, choose one of the following:3
Writing I *
Northwest Writers
Pacific Northwest History
Redemption of Creation
Theology & Ecology
Complete an additional six credits from any of the lists above6
*

 Selected sections only. Please see your advisor.

Requirements for a Science Endorsement for Majors in Biology, Chemistry or Physics (32)

BI 140General Biology I: Genes, Cells and Evolution4
BI 141General Biology II: Organismal Biology4
CH 161General Chemistry I3
CH 161LGeneral Chemistry I Lab1
One of the following4
Organic Chemistry I
General Chemistry II
PS 151General Physics I **3
PS 151LGeneral Physics I Lab1
PS 153General Physics II **3
PS 153LGeneral Physics II Lab1
PS 141Introduction to Astronomy4
One of the following4
Understanding Earth
Environmental Geology
Earth and Sky

**

Note: PS 151 has a prerequisite of MA 171 (Calculus I) and PS 153 has a prerequisite of MA 172 (Calculus II).

Au Sable Institute

The Au Sable Institute is a Christian environmental-stewardship institute whose mission is to work to bring healing and wholeness to the biosphere and the whole creation through academic programs, research projects and educational outreach. Whitworth is a participating member of the institute. Coursework taken through the institute can be counted as elective credit toward completion of a biology degree. The following courses (this is a partial list) are offered during the summer at the Au Sable Pacific Rim campus (on Puget Sound, near Seattle). Other courses are offered at the following campuses: Au Sable Great Lakes (in the Great Lakes Forest, Mich.), Au Sable East (on the Chesapeake Bay, in Virginia), Au Sable Africa (near Nairobi, Kenya), and Au Sable India (in Tamil Nadu, South India). A full listing of Au Sable courses is available in the biology department.

BIO 266 Natural History of the Pacific Northwest (3)
Biology and environment of plants and animals, nature of the physical environment, and biogeography of the Pacific Rim, from a stewardship perspective.
 
BIO 311 Field Botany (4)
Field identification and ecology of vascular plants as components of natural communities. Emphasis is placed upon on-site examination of plants in communities of the region. Ecological features such as community stratification and plant zonation along ecological gradients are examined. Prerequisite: one year of introductory biology or one semester of botany.
 
BIO 324 Natural Resources Practicum (4)
Environmental analysis and natural resources in relation to people and policy in the Pacific Rim. The focus is on local and regional environmental issues and policy in the context of environmental stewardship. It deals with the topics of old-growth forests, endangered species, fisheries issues, conservation of wild nature, international environmental issues in the Pacific Rim, land tenure and environmental stewardship.
 
BIO 359 Marine Mammals (4)
Biology, behavior, ecology, identification, and conservation of the marine mammals of the Pacific Rim. Work covers some of the major habitats in Puget Sound, with particular attention to the diving physiology, social behavior, and communications of whales and seals. Prerequisite: one year of general biology or one semester of zoology.
 
BIO 417 Marine Stewardship (4)
Stewardship of marine habitats and marine organisms in the context of environmental issues and policy. Includes developing an understanding of the structure, function, and conservation issues regarding biotic communities and ecosystems of coastal zone, estuaries, islands and the sea. Prerequisite: one year of general biology.
 
BIO 477 Plant Ecology (4)
Interrelationships between plants and their physical and biotic environments; plant-animal interactions; plant community composition and development; and modern methods or ordination and quantitative analysis with applications to conservation and stewardship. Prerequisite: one year of biology and one course in ecology.
 
BIO 499 Biological Research (1-6)
Participation in an ongoing research project of the institute, or a research project conducted concurrently with an advanced course. Prerequisite: permission of professor or concurrent enrollment in an advanced course.

Interdisciplinary Courses

IDS 115 Preparing for a STEM Career1
Students will learn about the type of scientific work they would enjoy, explore scientific careers, hear guest speakers, and understand the preparation necessary at the undergraduate level in order to succeed in their chosen career. Spring semesters. Recommended standing: Freshman.
IDS 151 Seminar for Health Professions1
A seminar to introduce students to the pre-health fields. Visiting speakers will represent medical, dental and veterinary fields. Course will also cover specifics of courses, majors, and other issues related to pre-health fields. Spring semester.
IDS 351 Preparatory Seminar: Health Professions1
A cross-disciplinary course focusing on synthesis of general biology, general chemistry, general physics, organic chemistry, physiology, NMR and IR spectroscopy. Strategic course for learning to apply introductory science/math knowledge to questions involving higher-order content. Intended for students planning to take the Medical College Admissions Test, Dental Aptitude Test, or veterinary-school entrance exams. Intended primarily for the student in his/her junior or senior year. Students will prepare for health professions both in terms of the entrance exams and by researching each school's focus and prerequisites. Prerequisites: BI 140, BI 141, CH 161, CH 181, CH 271, CH 278, PS 151, and PS 153.

Courses

BI 102 Introductory Biology3
Contemporary understanding of the basic organization and function of biological systems and the nature and interdependence of living organisms. Emphasis on cell structure, the diversity of organisms, and physiology. Lab. Meets natural science requirement.
BI 102L Lab: Introductory Biology0
BI 104 Human Ecology3
Nature, dynamics and interdependence of ecosystems in relation to the human biological and cultural niche. The ecological principles of energy flow, nutrient cycling, succession, limiting factors, species diversity and symbioses are utilized to diagnose global environmental problems such as global warming, acid precipitation, ozone depletion, desertification, species extinction, deforestation and resource depletion. No lab. For non-science majors. Periodic offering.
BI 105 Plants in Culture3
Basic structures and life processes in plants. Survey of historical and contemporary uses of plants. Focus on ways in which human life is physically dependent on plants, and on the many ways in which human cultures reflect the specific plants available to them. No lab. For non-science majors. Meets natural science requirement. Periodic offering.
BI 107 Infectious Diseases3
Introduction to the structure, function and diversity of microorganisms that cause human disease. Microbial infections that complicate exposure to vacation climates, pets, recreational activities and exotic cuisine will be emphasized. For non-science majors. Meets natural science requirement. Periodic offering.
BI 108 Biology of Sex & Gender3
Investigation of the biological basis of gender variation, sexual identity, reproduction and sexual development. Emphasis given to the developmental biology, neurobiology, endocrinology and physiology underlying human male and female form and function. No lab. For non-science majors. Meets natural science general requirement. Periodic Jan Term offering.
BI 110 Introduction to Human Genetics3
Mechanisms of inheritance which account for the vast genetic diversity within the human species, hereditary disease and genetic therapy, human genome project. No lab. For non-science majors. Periodic offering. Meets natural science requirement.
BI 111 Marine Biology3
Introduction to life in the sea. Emphasis on the diversity of marine organisms and adaptations to marine habitats, marine ecosystems and food webs. No lab. For non-science majors. Periodic offering.
BI 112 Biology of Northwest Agriculture3
The biological concepts that underlie current topics in agriculture of the Northwest will be discussed. Popular views of the biological factors thought to play a role in agriculturally related issues will be compared to established hypothesis and theories. Periodic Jan Term offering.
BI 113 Biological Evolution3
Introduces major principles of evolutionary biology, including concepts of evolutionary genetics, adaption and natural selection, and speciation and macroevolution. Contemporary controversies surrounding the teaching of evolution are also discussed. No lab. For non-science majors. Periodic Jan Term offering.
BI 115 Conservation & Human Rights3
Conservation of natural resources occurs in cultural contexts. Overview of the science behind conservation efforts. Consideration of costs and benefits for particular human groups.
BI 120 Introduction to Environmental Science3
Overview of how science informs our approach to environmental concerns, with application to specific current environmental challenges, including water resources, energy, land use, biodiversity, and global change. Also discussed how faith integrates with science to shape our approach to the environment.
BI 140 General Biology I: Genes, Cells and Evolution4
Introduces cells as the structural and functional units of living systems, emphasizing molecular characteristics of cellular and biochemical processes in the context of cellular and subcellular organization. Topics covered include basic biological chemistry, cell and virus structure, energy utilization and metabolism, viral and cellular reproduction, genetics, evolutionary theory, systematics and phylogeny. In the laboratory portion of the course, students investigate cell structure, function, and genetics. This course is part of the introductory sequence of courses designed to assist students in developing critical reasoning skills and the necessary conceptual framework for advanced study in biology. Fall semester.
BI 140L General Biology I: Genes, Cells and Evolution Lab0
BI 141 General Biology II: Organismal Biology4
Evolutionary origin, taxonomic classification and unique anatomical, physiological and behavioral adaptations of protists, fungi, green plants, and animals. Lab. Prerequisite: BI 140. Spring semester.
BI 141L General Biology II: Organismal Biology Lab0
BI 204 Medical Microbiology4
Microorganisms, especially bacteria and viruses of medical importance. Basic structure and physiology of microorganisms, principles and control of growth, antibiotics, a survey of infectious disease. Prerequisite: CH 102. Spring semester. For nursing majors only or by instructor permission.
BI 230 Introductory Biochemistry3
Introduction for biology majors to biopolymers and metabolism. Focus on energy flow and chemical processes in living systems. No lab. Prerequisites: BI 140, 141, CH 161, CH 181. Co-requisite: CH 271. Fall semester.
BI 296 Topics in Biology1-3
Selected topics in biology. Periodic offering.
BI 303 Plant Taxonomy4
History, theories and methods of classification, identification, nomenclature and description. Role of taxonomy as a biological discipline. Types of taxonomic evidence. Descriptive terminology. Survey of selected families. Lab focuses on use and construction of diagnostic keys, identification of local flora, preparation of field data records and herbarium specimens. Lab. Prerequisites: BI 140 and BI 141. Spring semester, even years.
BI 303W Plant Taxonomy4
History, theories and methods of classification, identification, nomenclature and description. Role of taxonomy as a biological discipline. Types of taxonomic evidence. Descriptive terminology. Survey of selected families. Lab focuses on use and construction of diagnostic keys, identification of local flora, preparation of field data records and herbarium specimens. Lab. Prerequisites: BI 140 and BI 141. Spring semester, even years.
BI 303L Lab: Plant Taxonomy0
BI 304 Ecological Measures4
This course will explore a number of fields of ecological research and management, focusing first on the reasons for measuring ecosystem attributes pertinent to each field, as well as covering sampling design, analysis, and common measurement techniques. Three required Saturday field trips. Prerequisite: BI-345. Fall semester.
BI 304W Ecological Measures4
This course will explore a number of fields of ecological research and management, focusing first on the reasons for measuring ecosystem attributes pertinent to each field, as well as covering sampling design, analysis, and common measurement techniques. Three required Saturday field trips. Prerequisite: BI 345. Fall semester.
BI 304L Lab: Ecological Measures0
See BI-304.
BI 305 Landscape Ecology4
Landscape ecology is the study of the causes and consequences of landscape-scale pattern and process. Topics will include ecological scale, restoration ecology, disturbance ecology, ecological modeling, and geospatial ecological techniques. Includes 1 Saturday field trip. Prerequisite: BI 345. Fall semester.
BI 305W Landscape Ecology4
Landscape ecology is the study of the causes and consequences of landscape-scale pattern and process. Topics will include ecological scale, restoration ecology, disturbance ecology, ecological modeling, and geospatial ecological techniques. Includes 1 Saturday field trip. Prerequisite: BI 345. Spring semester.
BI 305L Lab: Landscape Ecology0
BI 308 Biology of HIV/AIDS3
Explores the biological, socioeconomic, political and religious factors that influence the transmission, life cycle, pathogenesis and treatment of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). No lab. Prerequisites: BI 140, BI 141 and BI 230. Jan Term, periodic offering.
BI 323 Animal Physiology4
An understanding of biochemistry is fundamental to learning the role of metabolism in overall energy flow in an animal. Lab. Prerequisites: BI 140, BI 141 and CH 271. Fall semester.
BI 323W Animal Physiology4
An understanding of biochemistry is fundamental to learning the role of metabolism in overall energy flow in an animal. Lab. Prerequisites: BI 140, BI 141 and CH 271. Fall semester.
BI 323L Lab: Animal Physiology0
BI 324 Animal Behavior4
The study of the mechanisms and evolution of animal behavior. Topics include methods of observation and quantification of behavior, natural selection, sexual selection, evolution of animal choice, and the biological basis of all social interactions. Lab. Prerequisites: BI 140 and BI 141. Fall semester, odd years.
BI 324W Animal Behavior4
The study of the mechanisms and evolution of animal behavior. Topics include methods of observation and quantification of behavior, natural selection, sexual selection, evolution of animal choice, and the biological basis of all social interactions. Lab. Prerequisites: BI 140 and BI 141. Fall semester, odd years.
BI 324L Lab: Animal Behavior0
BI 331 Plant Physiology4
Water relations, mineral absorption and nutrition, translocation mechanisms, respiration, photosynthesis, nitrogen metabolism, growth regulators, photomorphogenesis, senescence and stress physiology. Focus on vascular plants. Lab emphasizes whole organism responses. Prerequisites: BI 140, BI 141, BI 230, and CH 271. Spring semester, odd years.
BI 331W Plant Physiology4
Water relations, mineral absorption and nutrition, translocation mechanisms, respiration, photosynthesis, nitrogen metabolism, growth regulators, photomorphogenesis, senescence and stress physiology. Focus on vascular plants. Lab emphasizes whole organism responses. Prerequisites: BI 140, BI 141, BI 230, and CH 271. Spring semester, odd years.
BI 331L Plant Physiology Lab0
BI 333 Evolutionary Biology3
Study of the evolutionary paradigm that unifies the science of biology. Origin, refinement and the contemporary form of evolutionary theory, with the objective of understanding its use in organizing the data, ideas and research of the biological sciences. The study will critique some of the popular caricatures of the evolutionary paradigm. No lab. Prerequisites: BI 140 and BI 141; junior standing recommended. Spring semester, even years.
BI 333W Evolutionary Biology3
Study of the evolutionary paradigm that unifies the science of biology. Origin, refinement and the contemporary form of evolutionary theory, with the objective of understanding its use in organizing the data, ideas and research of the biological sciences. The study will critique some of the popular caricatures of the evolutionary paradigm. No lab. Prerequisites: BI 140, BI 141 and BI 363; junior standing recommended. Spring semester, even years.
BI 339 Intro to Field Studies1
Theoretical and logistical preparation for the field study tour the following Jan Term. Activities will prepare students for field work at an off campus location. Permission of instructor only. Limited enrollment. Prerequisites: BI 140, BI 141 and BI 345. Fall semester.
BI 341 Central American Field Ecology4
Field-based course that provides a unique context to perform student designed research in three Central American ecosystems in Costa Rica. Course will focus on field data collection, analysis, and reporting for ecological systems. Requires extensive time outdoors in conditions ranging from wet and cold to hot and dry.
BI 342 Field Marine Ecology4
Field-based course designed to explore the interactions of temperate marine organisms with their living and non-living environment. Students explore life histories and ecology of intertidal marine life in rocky shore, sand, mud flat, and planktonic communities. The class will be stationed at the Friday Harbor Marine Laboratory on San Juan Island, Puget Sound, Washington. Permission of instructor; limited enrollment. Prerequisites: BI 140, BI 141, BI 339 and BI 345. Jan Term, odd years.
BI 345 Ecology4
Fundamental relationships and processes by which organisms interact with each other and their physical environment. Focus on physiological adaptations, population growth and regulation, community and ecosystem structure and function, and biogeography. Lab. Prerequisites: BI 140 and BI 141. Spring semester.
BI 345W Ecology4
Fundamental relationships and processes by which organisms interact with each other and their physical environment. Focus on physiological adaptations, population growth and regulation, community and ecosystem structure and function, and biogeography. Lab. Prerequisites: BI 140 and BI 141. Spring semester.
BI 345L Lab: Ecology0
BI 346 Field Parasitology3
Field-based course exploring the interaction between parasites and hosts. Parasites in Northeastern Washington will be studied in relation to prevalence, location and affect upon the host. Organisms in the animal, plant, fungi, and protista kingdoms will be considered. Lab. Prerequisites: BI 140, BI 141, BI 230, BI 345, and BI 323 or BI 331. By permission of instructor. Periodic Jan Term offering.
BI 347 Microbial Physiology4
Ultrastructure, metabolic variations, genetics, ecology and evolution of prokaryotic organisms. Emphasis on the importance of bacteria in the study of various biological processes, as well as on the practical and technological importance and ecological significance of bacteria. Laboratory focus on techniques for isolating, culturing, and identifying bacteria, and on characterizing and studying their genetic and metabolic processes. Prerequisites: BI 140, BI 141 and BI 230.
BI 347W Microbial Physiology4
Ultrastructure, metabolic variations, genetics, ecology and evolution of prokaryotic organisms. Emphasis on the importance of bacteria in the study of various biological processes, as well as on the practical and technological importance and ecological significance of bacteria. Laboratory focus on techniques for isolating, culturing, and identifying bacteria, and on characterizing and studying their genetic and metabolic processes. Prerequisites: BI 140, BI 141 and BI 230. Spring semester, even years.
BI 347L Lab: Microbial Physiology0
BI 348W Environmental Microbiology4
This course will examine the applied effects of microorganisms on the environment and on human activity, health and welfare. The role of microbes in municipal waste treatment, bioremediation and agriculture will be discussed. The laboratory component of the course will explore the detection and quantitation of microbial activity, including cultural, microscopic, physiological and molecular approaches. Prerequisites: BI 140, BI 141 and CH 271. Spring semester, odd years.
BI 348L Lab: Environmental Microbiology0
BI 350 Comparative Vertebrate Anatomy4
Variations of the basic vertebrate theme that enable the species within the group to exploit the particular environment. Evolutionary development of major organ systems within vertebrate classes. Anatomical features of carnivore, herbivore and omnivore mammals will be discussed in detail. Lab. Prerequisites: BI 140 and BI 141. Spring semester.
BI 350W Comparative Vertebrate Anatomy4
Variations of the basic vertebrate theme that enable the species within the group to exploit the particular environment. Evolutionary development of major organ systems within vertebrate classes. Anatomical features of carnivore, herbivore and omnivore mammals will be discussed in detail. Lab. Prerequisites: BI 140 and BI 141. Spring semester.
BI 350L Lab: Comparative Vertebrate Anatomy0
Lab section for BI 350.
BI 354 Developmental Biology4
Developmental processes and patterns of form and function in multicellular organisms, particularly animals. Emphasis on molecular, cellular and environmental factors regulating gene activity, cellular differentiation, and pattern formation during various developmental sequences. Descriptive, comparative and experimental lab activities focus on chordate embryology, specifically gametogenesis, fertilization, cleavage, gastrulation and organogenesis. Prerequisites: BI 140, BI 141 and BI 230; junior standing. Spring semester, even years.
BI 354W Developmental Biology4
Developmental processes and patterns of form and function in multicellular organisms, particularly animals. Emphasis on molecular, cellular and environmental factors regulating gene activity, cellular differentiation, and pattern formation during various developmental sequences. Descriptive, comparative and experimental lab activities focus on chordate embryology, specifically gametogenesis, fertilization, cleavage, gastrulation and organogenesis. Prerequisites: BI 140, BI 141 and BI 230; junior standing. Spring semester, even years.
BI 354L Lab: Developmental Biology0
BI 363 Genetics4
Mechanisms that contribute to and maintain intraspecific diversity: meiosis, allelic segregation, chromosomal assortment, dominance-recessive allelic relationships, hybridization, multiple alleles, epistasis, linkage and recombination, polygenic inheritance and mutation. Population genetics, especially the factors that alter relative frequencies of gene pool alleles. Genetic molecules and the processes by which they are replicated, mutated and expressed. Human genetic diseases. Lab. Prerequisites: BI 140, BI 141 and CH 271. Fall semester.
BI 363W Genetics4
Mechanisms that contribute to and maintain intraspecific diversity: meiosis, allelic segregation, chromosomal assortment, dominance-recessive allelic relationships, hybridization, multiple alleles, epistasis, linkage and recombination, polygenic inheritance and mutation. Population genetics, especially the factors that alter relative frequencies of gene pool alleles. Genetic molecules and the processes by which they are replicated, mutated and expressed. Human genetic diseases. Lab. Prerequisites: BI 140, BI 141 and CH 271. Fall semester.
BI 363L Lab: Genetics0
Corequisite course: BI 363.
BI 369 Mycology4
Aspects of growth, metabolism, genetics and environmental modification peculiar to fungi. Distinguishing characteristics of major fungal groups. Lab. Prerequisites: BI 140, BI 141 and BI 230.
BI 369W Mycology4
Aspects of growth, metabolism, genetics and environmental modification peculiar to fungi. Distinguishing characteristics of major fungal groups. Lab. Prerequisites: BI 140, BI 141 and BI 230.
BI 369L Lab: Mycology0
BI 388 Cell & Molecular Techniques2-3
Hands-on laboratory investigation involving current techniques in cell and molecular biology. Students will be exposed to a variety of laboratory and research techniques, including techniques for manipulation and study of DNA, RNA and proteins, and cellular processes. Periodic offering. Suggested preparation: BI 399W or BI 412. Prerequisite: BI 140/141 and either BI 230 or CH 401.
BI 396 Topics in Biology1-3
This is a "topics" course number covering occasional and one-time offerings for upper-division students; such topics as plant anatomy, comparative vertebrate anatomy and mycology will be covered. Periodic offering.
BI 396L Lab for BI 3960
BI 399 Molecular Biology3
Contemporary molecular genetics: the organization, storage, retrieval and transfer of genetic information at the molecular level. Topics include the chemical and physical properties of nucleic acids, DNA replication, transcription, translation, mutagenesis, DNA repair, gene regulation and expression, techniques of experimental molecular biology and applications to biotechnology. Viral, prokaryotic, and eukaryotic systems examined. No lab. Prerequisites: BI 140, BI 141, BI 230 and BI 363; junior standing. Spring semester.
BI 399W Molecular Biology3
Contemporary molecular genetics: the organization, storage, retrieval and transfer of genetic information at the molecular level. Topics include the chemical and physical properties of nucleic acids, DNA replication, transcription, translation, mutagenesis, DNA repair, gene regulation and expression, techniques of experimental molecular biology and applications to biotechnology. Viral, prokaryotic, and eukaryotic systems examined. No lab. Prerequisites: BI 140, BI 141, BI 230 and BI 363; junior standing. Spring semester.
BI 400 Biological Research1-4
Individual student experimental-laboratory or field-research projects. Projects to be approved by department faculty. Prerequisite: BI 140, BI 141 and BI 230 and upper-division coursework in biology and other sciences pertinent to research project. Fall and spring semesters, Jan Term and summer.
BI 401 Seminar1
Presentation and discussion of results of literature and laboratory investigations of biological phenomena. Departmental sessions. Prerequisites: 12 credits of 300- or 400- level biology courses. Periodic offering.
BI 404 Neurophysiology3
Structural and functional aspects of the central nervous system of mammals. Basic neuroanatomy, nerve transmission, synaptic function and neuronal control mechanisms. Current research and contemporary topics related to central nervous system function will be investigated. Prerequisite: BI 140 and BI 141. Spring semester, odd years.
BI 404W Neurophysiology3
Writing intensive BI 404. Structural and functional aspects of the central nervous system of mammals. Basic neuroanatomy, nerve transmission, synaptic function and neuronal control mechanisms. Current research and contemporary topics related to central nervous system function will be investigated. Prerequisite: BI 140 and BI 141. Spring semester, odd years.
BI 409 Techniques in Cell & Molecular Biology2
Techniques for the study of cells and subcellular components. Prerequisites: BI 140, BI 141 & either BI 230 or CH 401. Fall semester.
BI 409L Lab: Techniques in Cell and Molecular0
BI 412 Advanced Cell Biology3
Cell ultrastructure and molecular aspects of cell function. Emphasis on structural and molecular organization of eukaryotic cells and organelles, the regulation and compartmentalization of metabolic activities, cell cycles and reproduction, cellular differentiation and cell interactions. No lab. Prerequisites: BI 140, BI 141, BI 230, and junior standing. Spring semester, even years.
BI 412W Advanced Cell Biology3
Cell ultrastructure and molecular aspects of cell function. Emphasis on structural and molecular organization of eukaryotic cells and organelles, the regulation and compartmentalization of metabolic activities, cell cycles and reproduction, cellular differentiation and cell interactions. No lab. Prerequisites: BI 140, BI 141, BI 230, and junior standing. Spring semester, even years.
BI 448 Environmental Microbiology4
This course will examine the applied effects of microorganisms on the environment and on human activity, health and welfare. The role of microbes in municipal waste treatment, bioremediation and agriculture will be discussed. The laboratory component of the course will explore the detection and quantitation of microbial activity, including cultural, microscopic, physiological and molecular approaches. Prerequisites: BI 140, BI 141 and CH 271. Spring semester, odd years.
Dean of Arts and Sciences

NOELLE WIERSMA

Chair

CRAIG TSUCHIDA

Professors

FRANK CACCAVOFINN POND

Associate professors

LEE ANNE CHANEYAARON PUTZKEMICHAEL SARDINIACRAIG TSUCHIDA

Assistant professor

GRANT CASADY